What is computer hardware?

What is computer hardware?

A hardware is a physical part of a computer which defines the structure of a computer. Computer’s hardware component perform a tasks like calculating data, processing inputs, storing information and displaying output. Any part of a computer that you can physically touch and see is called hardware.

Every hardware devices, whether it is internal or external, include chips on a circuit board to perform a function. All hardware usually connecting by port, socket, or wireless radio. Including port, socket hardware also need buttons, sensors, protective cases, or even cooling fans to prevent overheating.

Internal component

All the basic parts connected together and packed inside computer’s case is called internal component. Bellow are some example of internal component of a computer-


A motherboard is the main system board every other component connects to, consisting of a large circuit board with many integrated chip sets and controllers. Motherboards also include ports, sockets, and slots that you can use to connect new components.


CPU is the brain of a computer that processes instructions and controls the rest of the hardware.

Memory or RAM

Memory, or RAM, temporarily stores information for the CPU to process.


Storage devices like Hard Disk Drives (HDD) and Solid State Drives (SSD) stores all the computer’s applications and files. Unlike memory, which temporarily holds data, storage devices keep data even after the computer is powered off.

Controller cards and Expansion cards

Controller cards and Expansion cards plug into special slots on a motherboard to expand a computer’s capabilities. Examples include more powerful video cards, additional network interfaces, and extra ports.

Power supply

power supply converts the alternating (AC) current from a wall socket into a direct (DC) current that powers a computer’s components.

Graphics Card

GPUs process and process massive amounts of graphics data, especially in 3D rendering. Your video card contains at least one GPU. The dedicated graphics card communicates with the motherboard via expansion slots. The communication does not occur due to the basic onboard graphics. Upgrade your graphics card to improve the performance of your PC.

Power Supply Unit (PSU)

You can’t operate a computer without power! It transforms alternating current (AC) power into direct current (DC). The aim is to power the sensitive components inside computer. It is important that your power supply unit has fans to reduce the heat. Since overheating can ruin components and reduce performance.

Also read this : What is a Hardware?

External Peripherals

External hardware devices, are usually called “Peripherals.” These include everything that connects to a computer by one of its ports or plugs, including these common examples:


Monitors display the output of a computer’s video card to provide a graphical user interface that someone can use to monitor and control the computer.

Keyboards and Mice

Keyboards and Mice accept input from the person operating the computer, allowing them to enter text, issue commands, and manipulate objects displayed on the screen.

Speakers and Headphones

Speakers and Headphones play the sounds generated by a computer.


Printers allow a person to print a document from their computer onto paper.


Scanners allow them to create a digital copy of a document or photograph. Multi-function printers that combine these functions are now common.

External storage devices

External storage devices store data just like internal storage devices do, but you can easily disconnect one from one computer and reconnect to another to move data between computers.

Peripherals are also a type of hardware. The most common ones include:

  • Mouse
  • Keyboard
  • Display monitor
  • Webcam
  • Headphones
  • Microphone
  • USB flash drive
  • Speakers
  • Printer
  • Scanner
  • Gamepad or other controllers


The type of hardware installed is commonly referred to as computer specifications. You don’t need to know how to build a computer from scratch. Instead, understanding what the hardware does can help you troubleshoot it. The right choice of peripherals. The monitor, mouse and keyboard are the main focus. So, your computer may have everything, but without peripherals it will be of no use. A peripheral is nothing but a piece of physical hardware. It allows a computer user to interact with the computer.

You should Also read this : Computer Exam Preparation

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