What is a Computer- Computer Fundamentals :- A computer can be defined as a machine or device which can work with information such as store, retrieve, manipulate and process data. The term computer is derived from the word “COMPUTARE” which is a LATIN WORD and was used for calculation. Thus it can be more precisely defined as a Programmable machine which is used in some numerical calculations. Before few decades these machines were used for only calculations but now days they are widely and hugely used in all sections of human society. 

Modern Computers are incredibly advanced thanks to the new upgradation and enhancement of technologies. They can store huge amount of data in the internal as well as external sources. Computer Hard disk is the primary source of storing data. These days their speed has dramatically increased the work or job which used to take long hours to perform can be done in few seconds this is because of the heavy development in the IT sector specially in computer hardware peripherals and devices which are so advance that it is hard to believe. 

The speed of computer mainly and primarily depends upon some factors such as :-

1- Motherboard :: Computer Motherboard is designed on a piece of PCB Which is called as Printed Circuit Board where all other components are attached to it such as hard disk, processor, ram etc. 

2- Processor :: Processor is again called as CPU which stands for central Processing Unit. It is also called as Heart of Computer System. 

3- RAM :: RAM stands for Random Access Memory which is temporary storage medium and it’s is volatile memory. They tend to lose data when power is off. However, the speed of computer depends upon ram as well. You can install more capacity of ram to increase your computer speed but firstly you have to check the compatibility factors of motherboards and other components or the device. 

4- Hard Disk :: This is a permanent storage unit of a computer which can store data in high volume and you can retrieve data whenever and wherever you need. They are available in market in huge data storing capacity.


A desktop computer is a personal computer designed for regular use at a single location on or near a desk or table due to its size and power requirements.

In computing, input Or output or I/O (or, informally, io or IO) is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system. Inputs are the signals or data received by the system and outputs are the signals or data sent from it. The term can also be used as part of an action; to “perform I/O” is to perform an input or output operation.

I/O devices are the pieces of hardware used by a human (or other system) to communicate with a computer. For instance, a keyboard or computer mouse is an input device for a computer, while monitors and printers are output devices. Devices for communication between computers, such as modems and network cards, typically perform both input and output operations.

The most common configuration has a case that houses the power supply, motherboard (a printed circuit board with a microprocessor as a central processing unit, Memory, bus, and other electronic components), disk storage, a keyboard and mouse for input; and a computer monitor, speakers, and often, a printer for output. The case may be oriented horizontally or vertically and placed either underneath, beside,or on top of a desk.

Apple II, TRS-80 and Commodore PET were first generation personal home computers launched in 1977, which were aimed at the consumer market rather than businessmen or computer hobbyists. Byte magazine referred to these three as the “1977 Trinity” of personal computing. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, desktop computers became the predominant type, the most popular being the IBM PC and its clones, followed by the Apple Macintosh, with the third-placed Commodore Amiga having some success in the mid-1980s but declining by the early 1990s.

Early personal computers, like the original IBM Personal Computer, were enclosed in a “desktop case”, horizontally oriented to have the display screen placed on top, thus saving space on the user’s actual desk, although these cases had to be sturdy enough to support the weight of CRT displays that were widespread at the time.

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